Read e-book online Agricultural and Horticultural Engineering. Principles, PDF

By Clifford J. Studman

ISBN-10: 0409604690

ISBN-13: 9780409604696

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The plumb bob and square and the water in a tube have been used for centuries (the Romans made good use of the latter), and are still useful for small scale situations such as domestic building work and for rough checks if no other device is available. Some of these early devices appear in modern levelling equipment as we will see below. However for accurate and speedy work the spirit level is much more useful. Spirit levels are available to various standards. The carpenters level is usually relatively crude, since it is only used to test whether a surface is reasonably horizontal.

Second, the sum of the rise column and the sum of the fall column are subtracted to give the difference (B) between this pair of totals. If the two differences obtained so far do not agree then an error has been made in calculating the rise or fall figures, or in the additions for the totals. This error must be found, and corrected. The final item is to compare the last RL with the first RL, and ensure that the difference here (G) is in agreement with the two previous differences (A and B). 9 with (A) and (B), then there is a mistake in calculating the RLs from the rise and fall figures and this must be corrected.

However, it is often good enough, and a stadia survey is normally considered to be relatively quick and reasonably accurate. Stadia surveys are used for contouring, locating buildings, trees and fences on plans, and for site surveys for roading and bridging where both plans and relative levels are required. 11 TACHEOMETRY OR STADIA SURVEYING In addition to the sighting cross-hairs, both theodolites and levels often have additional hairs incorporated into the telescope sights, which can be used to measure horizontal as well as vertical distances.

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Agricultural and Horticultural Engineering. Principles, Models, Systems and Techniques by Clifford J. Studman


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