By Eric Rosenberg
Whereas unicast routing determines a direction from one resource node to 1 vacation spot node, multicast routing determines a direction from one resource to many locations, or from many assets to many locations. We survey multicast routing tools for whilst the set of locations is static, and for while it's dynamic. whereas many of the equipment we overview are tree established, a few non-tree tools also are mentioned. We survey effects at the form of multicast bushes, hold up limited multicast routing, aggregation of multicast site visitors, inter-domain multicast, and multicast digital inner most networks. We concentrate on uncomplicated algorithmic ideas, and mathematical types, instead of implementation point protocol information. Many traditionally very important equipment, no matter if now not at present used, are reviewed to provide viewpoint at the evolution of multicast routing.
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Additional resources for A Primer of Multicast Routing
However, pruned nodes can graft themselves back onto the tree upon receiving a join from an interested subtending host. In the original PIM Dense Mode protocol speciﬁcation, PIM prunes time out after 3 minutes, after which a new broadcast tree is created and pruning starts again. This periodic re-ﬂooding of (s, g) packets to non-receiver nodes is not eﬃcient for high bandwidth streams. In more recent PIM Dense Mode implementations, the source node n(s) periodically sends state-refresh messages down the original broadcast tree as long as s is still sending packets 46 3 Dynamic Routing Methods to g.
We now create another source tree, the (s2 , g1 ) tree. , if the tree construction method is bandwidth aware, and the streams generated by s1 and s2 have diﬀerent bandwidths). This new source tree is an (s2 , g1 ) tree, (s2 , g1 ) state is created on each node on this tree, and each node stores the interface to the RPF neighbor and the (s2 , g1) OIL. Suppose now that host s3 , subtending node 8, is the source for a diﬀerent group g2 , and the receiver nodes for (s3 , g2 ) are 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7.
The ( , g) forwarding information base (FIB) stored at each node visited by these joins contains (i ) the group g, (ii ) the RPF interface (the interface corresponding to a shortest path to the core), and (iii ) the ( , g) OIL (the child interface list). The RPF neighbor for the core node is the core itself. Suppose for some node n there is a subtending source host s for g but no subtending receiver host for g. Then n is not a receiver node for g, and hence will not join the shared tree for g. To allow traﬃc from s to reach receivers for g, with CBT Version 2, node n encapsulates packets from s in a bidirectional IP-within-IP tunnel, where the ends of the tunnel are n and the core.
A Primer of Multicast Routing by Eric Rosenberg