By K. B. Madsen
Fields of curiosity are mixed during this quantity: the historical past of technology and the idea, or philosophy, of technological know-how (metascience). the result's a historical past of psychology with emphasis put upon a metascientific research of the paintings of fourteen psychologists from quite a few periods.Each research is decided in ancient context; a interval or tuition is mentioned in every one bankruptcy, including a metascientific research of a few significant works from the respective interval or college. the writer employs a metascientific descriptive process or `systematology' built in the course of greater than 30 years of labor on comparative, metascientific stories of approximately 50 mental theories. the result of these stories were released in past works. those analyses also are used right here for verifying T.S. Kuhn's much-debated idea concerning the `revolutionary' improvement of sciences. the writer revises Kuhn's concept and indicates that it may be utilized to the historical past of psychology. therefore, in a Kuhnian experience, psychology will be stated to have had `normal sessions' and `periods of concern' resulting in university formation.
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In this case dualism is reduced to a (neutral) monism, since the two substances are regarded as two aspects of the same neutral substance or kind of reality. Finally, there are some intermediate stances between the extreme outer positions and the middle positions: d. Epiphenomenalism: 'Consciousness' is regarded as consisting of bi-phenomena determined by brain processes. e. Hyperphenomenalism (or 'Animism'): Material substances (including brain prbcesses) are regarded as bi-phenomena determined by the spirit.
M I Fig. 3 E D H I I I I I I S I 32 An integrative metatheory The extreme positions on the sliding scale representing psychophysical theories are: a. Materialism: Everything in the world - including human 'consciousness' is regarded as matter or material 'substance'. b. Spiritualism: Everything in the world - including 'the human body' - is regarded as spiritual substance. The middle positions on the psycho-physical dimension consist of three variants of c. Dualism: The world is regarded as consisting of both material and spiritual substance.
Attempts have also been made to distinguish between 'intervening variables' and 'hypothetical constructs'. The difference is supposed to be that intervening variables are purely empirical, operationally defined, terms referring to intervening links, whereas hypothetical constructs are terms which have a 'surplus meaning' over and above the empirically definable meaning. But this distinction has not been generally accepted by psychologists, because it is difficult to make a sharp distinction. All hypothetical terms have to some extent a surplus meaning, and so 'intervening variables' and 'hypothetical constructs' will together be designated hypothetical variables, meaning the variables (processes, structures) to which hypothetical terms refer.
A History of Psychology in Metascientific Perspective by K. B. Madsen