By Fred Lerdahl
This paintings, which has develop into a vintage in tune concept given that its e-book in 1983, types tune knowing from the point of view of cognitive technology. the purpose of departure is a look for a grammar of song via generative linguistics. the speculation, that is illustrated with a number of examples from Western classical track, relates the aural floor of a bit to the musical constitution unconsciously inferred by way of the skilled listener. From the perspective of conventional song concept, it bargains many inventions in notation in addition to within the substance of rhythmic and reductional conception.
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Additional resources for A Generative Theory of Tonal Music
Syncopation takes place where cues < previous page page_17 next page > < previous page page_18 next page > Page 18 are strongly contradictory yet not strong enough, or regular enough, to override the inferred pattern. In sum, the listener's cognitive task is to match the given pattern of phenomenal accentuation as closely as possible to a permissible pattern of metrical accentuation; where the two patterns diverge, the result is syncopation, ambiguity, or some other kind of rhythmic complexity.
11b. 11c, grouping intuitions are indeterminate. 11 These examples have demonstrated two basic principles of visual and auditory grouping: groups are perceived in terms of the proximity and the similarity of the elements available to be grouped. In each case, greater disparity in the field produces stronger grouping intuitions and greater uniformity throughout the field produces weaker intuitions. Next consider fields in which both principles apply. 12a the principles of proximity and similarity reinforce each other since the two circles are close together and the three squares are close together; the resulting grouping intuition is quite strong.
For example, at the 2-bar level, the introductory bar, the down-up pattern of the bass notes, the motivic structure of the melody, and the harmonic rhythm all conspire to produce strong beats at the beginnings of odd-numbered bars. ) The case is quite otherwise at the next larger level, the 4-bar level. Should the beats at this level be placed at the beginnings of measures 1, 5, and 9, or at those of measures 3 and 7? The cues in the music conflict. The harmonic rhythm supports the first interpretation, yet it seems inappropriate to hear the strongest beats in each 4-bar theme-group (measure 2 5, 6 9) as occurring at the very end of those groups (the downbeats of measures 5 and 9).
A Generative Theory of Tonal Music by Fred Lerdahl