By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This guide covers the refrigeration gear and structures for functions except human convenience. This publication comprises details on cooling, freezing, and storing meals; commercial purposes of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. basically a reference for the practising engineer, this quantity is usually precious for an individual excited by cooling and garage of meals items. This version comprises new chapters: Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration structures and Terminology of Refrigeration. additionally new for this quantity are bankruptcy order and groupings which have been revised for extra logical circulation and use.
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Additional info for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition)
In solid form it is commonly called dry ice, and is used in a variety of ways including as a cooling agent and as a novelty or stage prop. 3°F at atmospheric pressure. 5 Btu/lb. 14 oz to 80 ft3. Liquid CO2 is dispensed and stored in large pressurized vessels that are often fitted with an independent refrigeration system to control storage vessel pressure. Manufacturing facilities use it in both liquid and gas phase, depending on the process or application. , to replenish large storage tanks) can be transported by pressurized railway containers and specialized road transport tanker trucks.
See ASHRAE Standard 15 for system piping test pressure. REFERENCES ASHRAE. 2007. Safety standard for refrigeration systems. ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2007. ASME. 2007. Rules for construction of pressure vessels. Boiler and pressure vessel code, Section VIII, Division 1. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York. ASME. 2006. Refrigeration piping and heat transfer components. 5-2006. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York. ASTM. 2007. Specification for pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinccoated, welded and seamless.
An end cap or a valve in the off position). This type of shock has been known to occur in piping as large as 16 in. Low-temperature double pumper drum and low-temperature gas-powered transfer systems can also be prone to hydraulic shocks, because these systems use hot gas to move low-temperature liquid. If slugs form in the gas lines or gas is pumped into the liquid lines, then there is potential for hydraulic shock: trapped gas can condense, causing the liquid to impact a closed valve or other piping element.
2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers